Jul 11, 2019 in Review

Mini Literature Review Sample

Abstract

The following write-up is a mini literature review that compares and contrasts the methodologies and themes in four journals on Hiring People with disability.

Introduction

As far as disabled people are concerned, their successful employment has remained critical issue, although gradual change and legislative mandates have brought in some improvement. In most firms, disabled people are employed for lack of any other person or without the necessary accommodations making it too hard for the disabled employees to work properly. In the following review, four journals are discussed that touch on the various aspects of hiring people with disabilities.

The purpose of this journal is to investigate the attitudes and perceptions  of employers toward hiring people with disabilities also toward the state vocational rehabilitation (VR) agency. This journal is meant to increase the readers understanding of the employers’ attitude towards hiring those people with disabilities. According to this journal the US economy continues to experience strong growth and low unemployment, with many people with disabilities still struggling to join the labor market. Employment is difficult to achieve for people with disabilities, and they often feel segregated from the labor market due to their disabilities. This difficulty is usually associated with the attitude among employers towards employing people with disabilities and the non acceptance and acceptance environment created by the employers.

Negative attitudes are most often the barriers to successful placement into a job. Addressing and understanding employers’ attitudes are imperative because successful placement into jobs and the encouragement of employers to integrate people with disabilities effectively into the work place are central. Such negative attitudes are brought about by myths concerning people with disabilities as workers through ineffective rehabilitation placement methods and through employer hiring methods that are designed primarily to avoid many risky hires. If the responsibility to effectively serve employers and consumers is to be fulfilled by rehabilitation professionals, they can start by correcting the attitudinal, procedural and perceptual barriers which limit the people with disabilities in the attainment of quality employment results. If effective interventions are made, it can help to improve employers’ receptivity towards hiring people with disabilities.

Rehabilitation professionals ought to have more accurate and complete data about employer attitudes and needs, in order to address employer concerns. Credible sources of intervention are preferred by employers as rehabilitation professionals. In the quest for equality, rehabilitation professionals can be of the essence by providing skillful consultation services to the sector of business. As they assert, focus must move from locating jobs for people with disabilities to addressing the work needs of the employer.    

Disability, according to the ADA is the mental or physical or impairment that significantly limits one or more vital life activities and roles of an individual. A qualified Individual with a Disability refers to the person who meets legitimate experience, skill, education, or other prerequisite of an employment position sought or held and who can be engaged n the work's essential functions and roles with or without reasonable accommodation Individuals are considered disabled, under ADA, if they have a record of impairment, have a disability, or are regarded as having an impairment. Main life activities are the things that an average person can perform without or with little problem, for example, speaking, walking, learning, working.  Covered employment practices include training, recruitment, hiring, pay, promotions, benefits, leave, firing and job layoffs.

To investigate the status of disabled workers, current population Survey data got analyzed in the labor market ten years after ADA got passed. It was found that, taken as a group, workers with disabilities were six years older than other workers, they worked about four fewer hours in a week, and more likely they were single, and majority never has a college degree. Disabled people were less likely to be employed or participate in the labor force, before ADA. After ADA, workers who were disabled were more likely to get employed in large firms than the others. Due to increase in voluntary part-time jobs, part time employment plummeted for disabled workers, especially among those with mental disorders. Employees with disabilities got continually, disproportionately represented in low-wage, low-growth occupations, albeit somewhat less the passage of ADA. Workers with disabilities were more likely to have an experience of voluntary job separation but would be less likely to experience the involuntary separation, and they spent three weeks longer searching for jobs.

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Data from National Education Longitudinal study got analyzed, and showed that graduation rates among learning adults with disabilities were lower and that they aspired to non prestigious jobs. Also, they were less likely to get enrolled to post secondary institutions. It is the individual's right to choose whether or when to disclose their disability or any other related information; employers, however, cannot be expected to reasonably provide accommodation for a disability which has not been disclosed. It is advisable for one to disclose their disability before the interviews when the disability necessitated accommodation for the interview itself, with disclosure only after a job offer got received when the accommodation gets necessary for performing essential functions. Some employers request a medical examination before employment after making a conditional employment offer to the applicant. It is advisable for those seeking jobs to rehearse and script disclosure of disability, keeping medical terms to a minimum, leaving medical treatment history out, and describing the disability briefly with stress on the willingness and strengths to improve and the capability to perform even without accommodations.

Reasonable accommodations for disabled workers can range from complex to simple and expensive to cheap; accommodations permits the worker with disabilities to carry out the essential and fundamental roles of the work and, therefore, depend on the individual worker's disability and its impact on performance of essential job tasks. Accommodations may include step-by-step instructions for job tasks, providing written; leave schedules, flexible work and; work stations rearrangement for accessibility; voice recognition software, alternative keyboards and ergonomic or mobility assistive devices and tools.

A common and frequent theme in employment of the disabled people is the  to match the individual's skills and abilities with employer needs. Successful employment outcomes and results depended on the ability of matching capabilities with needs, with the employer's needs coming first. Employers and workers with disabilities may both put larger effort into matching job requirements with worker skills ; Strengthened mechanisms, which can help both groups in finding appropriate matches between skills and jobs. Similar matching of individuals' interests and skills with appropriate work was a feature of an exemplary and outstanding school-to-work program. Environmental supports can raise the match between the adults skills with jobs and LD. Work sampling, being a form of occupational exploration in which an individual with disabilities is offered brief exposure to diverse jobs,  to both identify his personal skills, and to assist them identify and make out appropriate jobs.

With its definitions of employers' and individuals' obligations and rights, ADA is not only a statement but a mandate of our moral and  ethical principles and  values as a culture. However, persons with disabilities continue to experience less positive employment overall experiences than their peers. People with disabilities and the employers ought to apply "triple standard" of ADA to reasonably accommodate each other for performing essential job and functions with no undue hardship being practiced to find people who match jobs and the jobs which match certain individuals.

Employers encounter many uncertainties, misconceptions and fears when facing the decision and verdict to employ the disabled people. The Pennsylvania Welfare Department is expanding its Works for Me campaign to create awareness and educate employers concerning the benefits and facts about hiring disabled people.   Launched in 2009, Works for Me successfully directed a lot of people succumbing to all types of disabilities to one point for resources, information and assistance so as to be employed. By realizing employers' comfort level and knowledge of employing people with disabilities directly impacts employment opportunities, this campaign now will offers employers with free resources.

Just like people with disabilities require resources and accurate information, to assist them in joining the workforce, the employers require being encouraged to put hiring them into consideration. Employers sometimes are nervous about hiring a person with a disability. Concerns about legal issues, accommodation costs, productivity rates and the employees’ safety are concerns expressed by businesses when enquired why they do not employ people who are disabled. It is the Welfare Department's goal to work closely with all employers, especially medium-sized and the small companies, in order to overcome such fears through education and by assisting them to come up with valuable relationships with the disabled people.

The Works for Me initiative will offer customized resources to employers on the basis of where the company or business is in their employment experience and level of knowledge with people who are disabled. Employers will be guided through a continuum, with the goal and purpose of solidifying relationships with disabled people who are qualified who could be potential candidates for employment.

The journals have addressed the issue of hiring the disabled adequately, with the first addressing the challenges faced by the disabled people in the labor industry while the second one addressed the accommodations that are necessary to make the work environment conducive for them. The third journal talks about the legislative measures that ought to be undertaken to free the disabled from their miseries in the job market. The forth one is more of a summary of all the issue affecting people with disabilities in their quest for their dream careers. All of the journals are somewhat the same as far as methodology is concerned. They seem to lobby for the liberation of the disabled from the miseries they face in search of jobs.. The difference is that the authors of each of the journals chose to address the specific issues affecting them like challenges, accommodations. Et al.

Conclusion

Plight of the disabled in the labor market has been adequately addressed in the above journals. As from my analysis of the journals, the disabled have a long way to go in order to find their rightful place- equal rights in the search for employment, accommodations, and legislative pieces to cushion them from lousy employers.

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