The Future of Robotics Essay
A robot is a mechanical technological device that performs automated tasks, either by following direct supervision from a human being, a set program, or general guidelines that are well-defined through the use of artificial intelligence techniques. The tasks performed by robots can either replace or improve human work and can be used in manufacturing companies, construction places, or even in the manipulation of heavy and large hazardous materials. A robot can involve a response-driven connection between sense and actions but is necessarily under the control of a human being. Its actions may follow the form of electromagnetic effectors, which are able to make an arm move, open and close grips, or even propel the robot. A robot working through a computer program is able to control and give feedback as required. The program is run on either an external or a microcontroller. Therefore, it shows that a robot can include almost all the automated devices (Teich, 2003).
Effectors can be used to make the robot move around or move other items around; this is referred to as manipulation. Hence, this divides the robot into two: mobile robotics and manipulator robotics, which grab things around. A robot has also been used as the overall concept for a mechanical man or an automaton that takes the form of an animal, whether real or imaginary. It has been used in many machines to take the place of a human being or an animal either in work or play. The development of robot technology is being widely used today to perform various tasks that are, in most cases, too dirty, harmful, hard, boring for human beings, or repetitive. This kind of robots normally takes the form of industrial robots which are used to carry out tasks in the manufacturing areas. However, articulated robots that perform tasks equal to a human arm are the ones commonly used.
The purpose served by robotic technology
A robot may be designed to perform specific tasks, like simply picking up and placing the workpieces. It may be used to interact with and work load a lathe, or even a milling machine. Most automotive industries have benefited because this new technology of robots has made the work easy. These robots have been set in away that perform tasks similar to human beings; this has led to the replacement of human labor in different simple repetitive activities. However, the largest adoptions of such technologies have been delayed by the presence of cheap labor and the expensive requirements of robotics.
Robotics that are automated guide vehicles and autonomous delivery robots are currently being used in industries, hospitals, laboratories, and other applications, which involve risk, reliability, and security as the greatest concern. In addition, autonomous patrolling safety and security robots have also begun to appear as part of the development towards automated buildings (Hunt, 1983).
Robots are known to be more accurate than human beings in their results. There are very few chances of a robot making a mistake and as a process, the entire thing may fail or get executed to perfection. The most complicated and difficult machines are able to be fixed by the use of robotic technology.
In medicine industry, robots are also performing very important tasks. They can prepare drugs and perform other simple tasks in surgery with the help of a human being. To mankind, robotics offer great assistance like replacing people in unsuitable working places such as in chemical plants and in pharmaceuticals that sometimes are not conducive to mankind. Robots are also entrusted with the duty of launching satellites and traveling to different planets altogether. Therefore, robotic technology is being reinforced for different purposes like raising manufacturing flexibility, productivity within a short period, improving the quality of product, process and working environment, and reducing scrap and manufacturing costs.
How and /or why this technology was discovered, who was responsible for its discovery, and when was it discovered?
Human beings have always been fascinated with the concept of artificial life and the construction of machines that resemble and act like human being. When people discuss and extrapolate the evolution of smart machines today, their discussion involves the possible rise of self aware, intelligent robots that causes a threat to their human masters. The word robot was coined by Karel Capek when he wrote the play Rossum’s Universal Robots in 1920. The play was premiered in Prague in 1921 and was later translated into English and first appeared on the English stage in 1923 and since then the word robot has been part of the global literature concerning smart machines and automatons. The technology revolution involved the discovery and the use of fire in prehistoric times. The second breakthrough included the establishment and use of simple tools, a stick, and a sharp rock to aid in hunting and gathering practices. Many of today’s robots include components and use principles that were first adopted during the rise of civilization, for instance, the wheel and axle, the pulley, the wedge, the lever, and gear.
Modern robots appeared from the confluence of various important technology areas during the digital revolution. However, robots can also trace their technical heritage to the simple machine tools invented in the Neolithic revolution disciplines like mechanic, pneumatics, and hydraulics that occurred in the scientific revolution and the electromechanical devises and machinery that appeared during the first and the second industrial revolution.
Industrial robots now perform a vital role in modern manufacturing facilities. George C. Devol, Jr. and Joseph F. Engelbeger the American entrepreneurs introduced the first industrial robot the world during early 1961. This was a time when the Consolidated Diesel Electric Corporation shipped the first commercial version of an animate robot from Connecticut and installed the machine in a General Motors plant in New Jersey.
Mobile robots, in different sizes,shapes,and capabilities currently play advanced roles in national security, the enforcement of law, in medicine, environmental clean up activities, and in the entertainment and leisure practices. The first modern mobile robot was revolved when the researchers tried to connect computer interfaced camera systems, which scanned the robot`s environment, with the robots mobility system. Robots can spray paint an automobile on an assembly line, can help in surgery performed by a human doctor on a patient who is located over hundreds of kilometers away, and can accomplish detailed automated exploration of previously unreachable worlds throughout the solar system.
Effects of robot technology on the environment and on people`s lives
Employing robotic technology has positive effects on both the environment and people in that because robots are used principally for tasks that are unpleasant or dangerous, and because the new jobs created for the robots are better, then the quality of work life is likely to improve. The productivity will also increase in both the long and short term, resulting in more flexible scheduled work per week. The new computer based automations also may most of the time relieve job boredom and resulting worker dissatisfaction that has been a major concern to many management experts. Individuals are also enabled to utilize more complex skills and do a greater variety of jobs, such as following the assembly of a product from beginning to end, hence assuming greater human responsibility for quality outcomes (Deb, 2001).
The working environment is also improved by the segregation of processes that create hazardous working conditions, like heat or exposure to chemicals, from a particular department of a company that is fully occupied with humans, and staffing them with robots. In addition, putting together robot helpers and people for some tasks that are strenuous eases job stresses and also opens up job opportunities for those who are physically handicapped or have limitations. Therefore, robots are important environmental tools that try to reduce environmental pollution by assisting environmentalists in dealing with issues of safeguarding the environment, saving lives, especially for people who are exposed to radiation, mitigating environmental disasters, and rescuing countless people from being exposed to dangerous radiations. The integration of robot industry motivate environmental consciousness where through replacing old robots with new and advanced ones makes it easy to conserve the environment while at the same time providing for factory conditions.
Ethical or moral issues with robotic technology
Developments in technology most of the time raise ethical or moral issues. It’s assumed that the use of products of technological establishment can be made to be a moral issue. Risks are bound to occur unintentionally through robot performances, such as errors encountered during programming, or the misuse of robots. Therefore, it’s important to consider the issue that a robot is not in a position to know whether it has done a right or a wrong thing. To ensure people’s safety, standards of ethical codes have been set up for the various types of robots being used. For instance, this technology is greatly used in military services; therefore, these people have means by which they determine the impacts they are causing to society when using this technology (Angelo, 2007).
Robotics that are automated guide vehicles, which are currently being used in industries, hospitals, laboratories, and other applications, involve risk, reliability, and security as the greatest concern. There has been an increasing rate at which robotic technology is growing. Various risks have been experienced as a result of the ever-growing rate of movement into the use of robotic technology and the necessity to promote the intelligence of robots so that they become more perfect and advanced machines. Because there are no specific guidelines to follow when making a robot, the designers and programmers need to strictly adhere to the code of ethical standards in their process of embracing the new technology. Robots are tools that try to reduce environmental pollution by assisting environmentalists in dealing with issues of protecting the environment, rescuing lives, especially people who are exposed to radiation, and mitigating environmental disasters, saving people from other hazardous conditions. The designers are advised to follow the code and principles of ethical standards so that the safety of innocent people is ensure and protected from any harm that may occur as a result of this technology. Education and training should be provided to any one in the industry using this technology so that they are aware of what is happening. Robots have positive effects on both the environment and man. Environmentally, they reduce pollution, and for mankind, they rescue people’s lives from radiation.