Assessment of the Nature Debate in Relation to Class
The issues of what causes the difference in class among people have had several debates. These individual intellectual differences have been associated with psychological, moral and educational issues. In addition, these differences have been discussed in relation to political, social-cultural and ethical factors that directly affect an individual. Furthermore physiological factors have been associated with the differences in class witnessed in many people. This topic at the same time is quite controversial and has made many people react strongly to certain beliefs. It has at the same time elicited personal attitudes and biases. It is therefore the responsibility of an individual to develop a personal familiarity with issues pertaining intelligence and class. Moreover, a student has to understand the strengths, weaknesses and arguments that support and those opposing the mere influences and correlates to class.
Nature versus Nurture
Psychologists attribute that both nature and nurture contribute to the level of intelligence an individual has. Nature is genetic and involves hereditary factors and how it affects the class of an individual. A great deal of adoptive study supports the fact that the genetic composition of an individual greatly influences the intelligence of an individual. Studies show that adoptive children have a strong relation with their IQ to their biological mothers more than their adoptive parents. From this argument, it is true that genes play a big role in the degree of class of an individual and that it is not only the nurture and environment of an individual that influences his or her intelligence.
Nature also determines our personality and the way we view things. This plays a great role in shaping our class. All matters concerning our traits majorly depend upon the concept of our genetic composition and hereditary factors.
On the other hand, nurture focuses on the impact of the environment to the class of an individual. Research shows that in every year of a child’s schooling, he/she gains an extra 3.5 points in IQ. It is also believed that nurture is what influences our behavior and traits. As much as our genes dictate our personality, the environment in which we are brought up also affects our intellectual capacity. The environment has the potential to influence our personality and transform us to different people. This can in the long run change our class a great deal. The way a child is brought up can change his or her understanding and develop a new perception of the environment around him.
The family set up child is brought up in can affect his or her intelligence. The family background is crucial in developing the child thus giving another reason why nurture plays an important role in intellectual development. According to psychologists, a child brought up with one parent has a lower intellectual capacity. On the other hand, a child brought up with both parents though different races and not considering their educational and economic background are always above average.
Evidence in Support of Nature
The major evidences are taken from family studies where arguments supporting the influence of nature on class are based. Family set up also provides an atmosphere to study the relative roles of genetic and environmental factors affecting the IQ of a child. Heritability estimates is based in comparing the IQ of both identical and fraternal twins. There is a difference that exists in such cases because identical twins share almost every thing in common while still in the womb and even after.
When twins are brought up in different homes, with different foster parents, it will result to a relationship credited to inherited characteristics from their parents. This is typical evidence in support of how nature affects the intelligence of an individual. In addition, twins are more susceptible to the trauma their parents go through which might lead to retardation at the same time. However, inheritance does not show the level in which a trait can be modified. For example, such inherited traits like intelligence found to be 100% can not mean that it can be modified.
Furthermore, evidence in support of nature as an influence to class is special ability. This is an evidence of greater genetic or hereditary link. Most children are found to have the same abilities just as their parents. For example, linguistic or mathematical and scientific abilities are inherited from parents. Moreover, reasoning ability is thought to be genetically influenced. A child will tend to think in the same line with the parent and at times have the same kind of arguments. There is also little evidence supporting nature in divergent thinking as well as verbal fluency .
Evidence in Support of Nurture
Family set up provides the best supporting evidence that nurture affects the intelligence and class performance of an individual. The relative roles played by both the genetic composition and environment are well studied in a family set up. The environment in which a child is brought up will directly affects his or her class. When an infant is malnourished, there are chances that he will have difficulties in developing cognitive abilities. A well nourished child will have the strength to develop good cognitive abilities. The number of siblings can negatively affects the class of an individual. This is because there might be unhealthy competition of resources in the family. At the same time, it might be difficult for parents to give relevant attention and time to their children thus affecting the development of their class.
The parent’s profession or economic status can also affect the class of a child. If a child is brought up in poor background without proper counseling and attention, the child is likely to be retarded . Other nurture factors that might also affect the class of an individual include their average time in book reading and self confidence instilled in them. In adults, negative relationships can directly affect their class and IQ levels. Criminal backgrounds will have a negative effect on the class of a child. Alcoholic parents also affect the performance and IQ of their children if not well guided.
Other factors Affecting Class and Intelligence
The socioeconomic status of parents affects the class of many children. Socioeconomic status is correlated with intelligence and should be considered a consequence of an individual’s intellectual capacity as well as class. On the other hand, adaptive studies show that socioeconomic status has a big effect though casual on the intelligence of an individual. Socioeconomic status of an individual will directly affect the education of the same person. The class and IQ of individuals from strong economic backgrounds is typically healthy and well enriched compared to those from weak socioeconomic backgrounds.
Studies show that education and class influence one another. A well educated person will have high intellectual ability with class compared to the other who is not well educated. Higher levels of intelligence tend to lead to continuous schooling which largely develops the intelligence and class of an individual. On the other hand, continuous schooling may lead to the development of an individual’s class. However, certain authorities believe that advanced and continued education does not influence the class and intelligence of an individual but instead improves the performance. The argument is that intelligence can not be modified but class and performance can.
Studies also show that intelligence and class is affected by occupation of an individual or the parents. According to research, the average relationship that exists between occupation and class is very minimal. This can only be affected by either ability or personality of an individual. Instead, it is the IQ that can determine the occupation and class of an individual.
It is evident that both nature and nurture have a role to play in the determination of the class of an individual. Both hereditary and environmental factors contribute in a way towards the development of an individual’s IQ. It should also be noted that both nature and nurture interact at different levels. Extreme situations such as poverty and wealth can both affect an individuals class even if it is inherited. It is not a single gene that carries the nature factor of class but a complex network of genes. In addition, several environmental factors influence the class of an individual and thus hard to be very specific.