Evolution of Human Beings
One of the most important elements in the creation history is the evolution of human beings. Many theorists have continued to make arguments on the issue of an attempt of forming a convincing explanation for the evolution of human beings. The main facts that are undisputed are that human beings are closely related to apes. Many scientists have found that human beings belong to a class of homininis referred as the apes. There are various apes that have been discovered by archeologists and the archeologist also present different opinions on the apes that were similar to human beings. Some of the apes had similar characteristics like those of the normal man while others didn’t have similar characteristics. In this paper, the main focus will be to compare the differences between the various homicides, with an attempt to find the homicide that mostly resembled human beings. One of the most common hominids is the Homo habilis and H rudolfensis . These hominids existed over 2 million years ago and they have been researched a lot by archeologists in a bid to explain whether they are closely related to human beings. The H rudolfensis remains were discovered in 1970’s and after the discovery; there were arguments on whether the amount of evidence that had been collected could be used to ascertain that it is a distinct species from Homo habilis (Wood, 2010). While many argued that it was the same as Homo habilis, it was later found that the skull as well the structure of the fossil differed a lot when compared to that of Homo habilis. One of the most important distinct factors is the fact that the jaws and the teeth of the primate were so different. The teeth found on H habilis could not match nor resemble the teeth found in H rudolfensis. The molars found in H rudolfensis were extremely large while the morals on the lower side were a bit broad. Other distinct factors are that they had crowns and roots that were very complex. On the other hand, the two species differed a lot regarding posture (Wood, 2010). The H rudolfensis had a skull that was flat and it had a long face. The ridge was also small when compared to that of Homo habilis. The crest and the muscles markings were also enormous, and they were similar to those found on the austropithecine skulls. The limbs of the hominid were bipedal, and this indicated that it could not have had a similar locomotion like of that the normal man. The rudolfensis lived at a time when the climate was getting drier and cooler (Wood, 2010). There is no material evidence that he practiced culture, but it is known that he lived at the time associated with the tool making skills of human beings. The most eminent feature is that the H rudolfensis had a higher brain capacity when compared to that of H habilis. If the brain size is taken into consideration, then, it would indicate that H rudolfensis is closer to Homo. However, on other aspects such the size of the teeth could indicate that H habilis is more homo than H rudolfensis. Some of the key similarities between the two species is that the species lived in the same ecological environments. The climate at the time of H habilis was similar to the climate that existed when H rudolfensis existed. Additionally, the two are also related to the era when human ancestors made tools. Although no evidence suggests that H rudolfensis made any tool, it is true that he lived at the tool making the stage (Australian Museum, 2015). Other fossils that have been debated are H. naledi, P. boisei. H. naledi is known as one of the recently discovered human fossils (Berger et al, 2015). It is a fossil that is closely related to human beings who are short bodied due to its mass and structure. The H. naledi fossils present the largest collections of fossils belonging to the same species. Unlike the other fossils such as the H habilis and the H rudolfensis, the fossil had similar structures that are associated with small human beings (Sarmiento et al, 2007). For example, it is said that their weight was almost similar to that of small human beings. Their hands and feet resembled that of human beings, and that’s why the fossil is closely related to human beings (Serrao, 2015). On the other hand, the fossil indicates that the H nailedi had a small braincase, and the pelvis and shoulders almost looked similar to that of other hominin species (Berger et al, 2015). The posture is likely to be similar to that of the normal human beings. The same is indifferent with other fossils such as those of H rudolfensis that indicates that H rudolfensis could not have had an upright locomotion like that of man. However, H nailedi is known to have a lower brain size that the other primates (Berger et al, 2015). The same raises doubts on whether the species were closely related to human beings. The lower brain capacity could indicate that the H nailedi did not make any tools, since the cognitive capacity is very imperative when it comes to tool making and use (Sarmiento et al, 2007). His hands were well adapted to climbing, and the legs were well developed for walking. Another important fossil is the fossil of P boisei. It is the largest member of the Paranthropus genus. The fossil is known to have existed about 1.75 million years (Institute of Human Origins, 2008). The H boisei is very popular because it was the first hominin that used the stone tools. His ability can only be categorized with that of H habilis who was the first Hominin to make tools (Berger et al, 2015). His ability to use the stone tools is one of the unique features that place it at a closer position to the normal man. However, the brain size of the hominine was much lower than that of the other hominins. The brain capacity ranged between 500- 550 cm3 (Sarmiento et al, 2007). The same raises doubts whether the P boisei could have been closely related to human beings. The skull was also well structured in a way that was adapted to heavy chewing (Australian Museum, 2015). The molars were also large when compared to those of man. Unlike other homininis that fed on plants, the P boisei is known to feed on nuts. It had the largest flat teeth, and it had a very wide face. Its tooth was almost four times the tooth of the normal man with the front teeth being smaller when compared to those of other hominins (Australian Museum, 2015). Another important feature that distinguishes it from another hominin is that its habitats were closely related to water sources. Other sources reveal that the P bosei ; lived in tree canopies. This is unlike other hominins such as the H habilis that lived in the grasslands. The above details reveal that the four hominids had some distinct features that are closely related to the homo. In this part, I will lay an explicit focus on why some of these hominids are closely related to man by their features (Sarmiento et al, 2007). At first, I feel that the Homo habilis are the ancestors of human beings at first, the H habilis is known to have an upright posture just like that of human beings. He was handy, and he could make tools. The fact that the H habilis was the first hominin to make tools convinces me that he was the ancestor of human beings (Sarmiento et al, 2007). He could easily manipulate the various tools that he had and make work easy. This is a character that is related to human beings. All the other hominids that used tools relied on the knowledge that the H habilis used to make their tools. On the other hand, they are closely related to human beings since the discovery of H habilis was one of the most progressive steps in the history of human evolution. All the other hominis that could not make tools were not in any way related to human beings. Human beings are known to be sharp, and I’m convinced that the sharpness of H habilis confirms that he was an ancestor of human beings. His brain capacity was also significant, and I would argue that the brain capacity of human beings continued to develop from h habilis to the normal man. The diet of H habilis is also an important element that makes H habilis an ancestor of man. He was an omnivore. Human beings are known to be omnivores in nature, and thus H habilis is closely related to man. In conclusion, the evolution of human beings is one of the most debated topics. There are various theories related to evolution and one of the most eminent theories is that human evolution was a procedural process. There were various hominids that were discovered, and these include H. habilis, H. rudolfensis, H. naledi, P. boisei. These hominins have similarities and differences with some of them being closely related to the modern man. In my opinion, I find the H habilis to be an ancestor of man when compared to the others. The features that he has, such as his upright posture and his diet are some of the convincing factors for my judgment.