Jul 11, 2019 in Review

Research Proposal Sample

Abstract

The study presents an analysis of the impact of nutrition on human health. According to the results of the analysis, the actual individual nutritional content regarding the basic food nutrients and biologically active substances was assessed. The effect of nutrition on the increase in the incidence and mortality in the United States was examined. The study provides a method for correcting the diet in order to provide the body with nutrients. In addition, the study reveales a connection of various eating disorders and health conditions as well as the impact of nutrition on the physiological and psychological characteristics of human body.

Introduction of the Topic

One of the major factors affecting human health is the quality of food. The human body is a complex biochemical mechanism that requires daily intakes of essential nutrients. In order to maintain health on the appropriate level, the human body needs protein, fat, carbohydrates, water, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and essential fatty acids. Deficiency of any nutrient is the cause of the violations in the human body from lung ailments to death. Fundamental changes which have occurred in the past decade not only in ecology but also in our diet, have very dangerous effects on our health. The increase in the amount of fat, salt and sugar are directly linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity, allergies, and stroke. Lack of time, incompetence in matters of food culture, the pace of modern life and other factors have led to promiscuity in the choice of products. The growing popularity of the fast-food containing lots of different flavors, colors, and modified components is a cause for concern. Therefore, poor diet is becoming a serious risk factor for many diseases. Unfortunately, the statistics of recent years shows a dramatic increase of obese, cardio-vascular, diabetes, etc among people. It is possible to prevent such diseases if leading healthy lifestyle and, above all, to correct nutrition style. The object of study is a balanced diet of the population as a component of quality of life. The subject of research is the impact of different types of food on human health and the quality of life. The scale of the study is due to its novelty in practical and theoretical sence.

The Purpose

The purpose of the study is to determine the value of a balanced diet in improving the quality of life of the population and the development of practical recommendations to address socio-economic problems associated with nutrition in the USA. The purpose of the research involves solving complex problems:
  • To identify the theoretical and methodological approaches to the sociological study of human nutrition;
  • To determine the place and the role of nutrition as the factors of quality of life;
  • To identify and examine the relationship and interdependence of the problems of quality of life and the nutrition of different social groups;
  • Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign experience in addressing nutrition problem, to offer the possible reform of nutrition and formation of adequate consumer attitudes of the population;
  • To identify the socio-economic efficiency of the measures and proposals for improving the quality of nutrition.

Method of the Project

The research methodology is based on generally accepted scientific methodological approach involving accounting and recent theoretical developments on designated problem. The designated research problem led to the use of the logical method in conjunction with the historical as well as qualitative and quantitative methods of sociological analysis: the method of in-depth interviews, expert assessments, standardized questionnaire and analysis of statistics

Thesis Statement

The quality of food has a direct impact on human health.

Literature Review

  • Gómez-Pinilla, F. (January 12, 2010). Brain Foods: the Effects of Nutrients on Brain Function. PMC.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in the life of the cell membranes of the human brain. The researchers have studied biochemical processes involving fatty acids in membranes of neurons. The content of these substances in the membranes causes their flexibility and endocytosis. The researchers found that the cells that are rich for polyunsaturated lipids are more sensitive to the action of proteins such as dynamin and endophilin participating in the division of the cell membrane (endocytosis). Scientists believe that this study will help shed light on the course of the process of endocytosis in nerve cells. According to researchers, the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as omega-3 fatty acids has a positive effect on human health, in particular reducing the risk of cerebral ischemia.
  • Trepanowski, J.F., and Bloomer, R. J. (22 November 2010). The Impact of Religious Fasting on Human Health. Nutrition Journal
Religious fasting emphasizes the importance of the qualitative composition of foods with a view to a favorable effect on health. Fasting of Daniel and Orthodox fasting is associated with more favorable outcomes, despite the fact that those who observe fasting may eat food in any quantity. On the other hand, the way how fasting Ramadan allows achieving the desired effects largely depends on the food preferences. However, this is not an axiom, that the amount of food intake does not affect the state of health. Hundreds of studies have demonstrated the importance of the use of the limited calories. Observance of religious fasts once again confirms the position that people can significantly improve their diet by forced reducing the total amount of consumed food.
  • Drewnowski, A. and W. J. Evans (n.d)  Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life in Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A
Aging is a consequence of the development process. In humans, there are four nutrient age. The fourth stage comes after 60-65 years and is marked by the extinction of body functions. Inconsistency of nutrition with recommended quantitative and qualitative parameters is due to:
  • Imbalance protein food ingredient;
  • An insufficiency of some biologically active substances and violation of their relations in the diet;
  • Excess daily calories (from fat and simple carbohydrates)
  • Deficiency of essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals;
  • Inadequate intake of fiber.
The effect of all nutrients is much less than the influence of the limited caloric intake. All nutritional factors which prolong life effect, especially the low energy value of food, significantly inhibit the development of diseases associated with age: cardiovascular, cancer, degenerative lesions of parenchymal organs, etc. Improving the health status is accompanied by an increase in life expectancy.
  • Shridhar, G. (November 16, 2015). Modern Diet and its Impact on Human Health. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences
Food of modern man does not correspond to the biological requirements of the organism. The vices of modern food are the consumption of more meat, fat, sugar, salt, irritating spices, alcoholic beverages and others than necessary. The applied high-temperature processing of products deprives of their vitamins and other biologically valuable substances. A disaster is over-eating: as a result many people have overweight. More than 40% of the population is obese. Particular note is the amount of food that is redundant. For single meal 300-500 grams, which are freely placed in the stomach is enough. The amount contained in food fats, proteins, carbohydrates must be reduced at least twice.
  • Carroll, C. (October 2014). Better Academic Performance — Is Nutrition the Missing Link? Today’s Dietitian
School meals should be balanced. For the children's health, the right balance of nutrients is essential. The menu of the student must include foods that contain proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and essential amino acids, vitamins, certain fatty acids, minerals, and trace elements. These components alone are not synthesized in the body but are necessary for the full development of the child's body. The ratio between the proteins, fats, and carbohydrates should be 1: 1: 4. Meals student must be optimal as well. In drawing up the menu, it is required to take into account the needs of the body, associated with its growth and development, a change in environmental conditions, increased physical or emotional stress.
  • Burkert, N. T. (February 7, 2014). Nutrition and Health – The Association between Eating Behavior and Various Health Parameters: A Matched Sample Study. PLOS
Vegetarian food is associated with a set of issues relating to health. As a diet, it has possible advantages and disadvantages. In particular, it can provide the body with essential vitamins, minerals, and essential amino acids from plant or lactovegetarian food. For a fully vegetarian diet it is not enough just to eliminate meat and other foods of animal origin, it is necessary to replace it with a food of similar nutritional value and to plan a diet. When the vegetarian diet is not properly planned, deficiency of protein, iron, calcium, omega-3, vitamin D, vitamin B12, and zinc can be noted.
  • Fueling for Performance: How Proper Timing of Meals Affects Both Sport and Academic Performance. (Aug 6, 2013). NCAA
Experts have recognized that the regular diet has a beneficial effect on the body. If the schedule of eating is broken, the digestive organs cease to function normally. Even the mood of is getting worse in this situation. Correctly ordered flow of food into the stomach leads to good results. The rhythmic and efficient operation is ensured only by digestion, which is built on a particular system. There is no universal remedy in this situation because each person is different. The age and gender and the specificity of operations must be taken into account. Diet promotes the release of saliva, digestive juices.
  • Conlon, M. A.( 24 December 2014). The Impact of Diet and Lifestyle on Gut Microbiota and Human Health. Nutrients
The scientists proved that more than 90% of all diseases and abnormalities that occur in our body occur are due to abnormalities in the intestine. The modern food contains many fat, fried food, preservatives, sugar, refined drinks, and finally alcohol. Food residues accumulate over the years in the human body. All these toxins are poisoning human bodies. The result is a strong failure of weight and health. The first signs of weight gain appear just at disrupting the work of the digestive tract and intestines. Then the decline in circulatory and endocrine systems occurs. The poisons accumulating in an unhealthy intestine, go all over the body, and soon the body can not properly digest food and produce energy.

Significance of the Research Topic

In the last decades of the XX century, the international community has begun to recognize and re-interpret critical nutrition problems. In the world the institutions of nutrition at the international level occur. In studies the problems of nutrition are considered from the perspective of international cooperation:
  • in 1995, the Institute of Food and Agriculture of the United Nations (Budapest) was established;
  • in 1997, the North American Joint Council on nutrition was organized;
  • Japan's Institute works to preserve and promote the national food culture, due to the increase in the number of people who refuse the national cuisine and prefer fast food which is less useful;
in Spain in September 2011, it was scheduled to open the University of Science of cooking. The establishment and activities of these institutions actualizes the problem of nutrition of the population, both in individual countries and in the world in general. According to the UN, at the end of XX century, the population of the world grows by an average of 1 million 200 thousand men every week. Experts predict that in the XXI century, the world population will exceed 8 billion. It has been established that the modern person consumes about 800 gr. of food and 2 liters of water daily. The daily diet of the world's population consists of more than 4 million tons of food. According to UN estimates, the growth of agricultural production in the future will be more and more lagged behind the population growth. Now, in the world, food shortages exceed 60 million tons. In the future the growth of this deficit is inevitable. This global problem is exacerbated by the constant increasing industrialization of human nutrition. Each year, the number of people which using food industry businesses: cafes, restaurants, snack bars increase for 5-7%. Analysis of the research company Food Service (USA) for 1979-1999  showed that a significant proportion of newly opened catering makes up cheap bistros, cafes, fast food restaurants (Macdonald's, Burger King). They accounted for 83.5%, while the restaurants that meet all the recommendations of the World Health Organization account only for  14.5% of the total number of supply enterprises, while the number of haute cuisines, which is the most high-quality, is two percent. Researchers reveal the direct link between the problem of rising of fast-food enterprises and a sharp decline in public health and the duration of the life. According to the Bureau of Population Studies of the USA from 1960 to 1975, in the country, it was recorded a sharp decline in life expectancy from 75 to 70 years. More than half of the deaths were the result of poor nutrition and unhealthy lifestyles in general. The proportion of hereditary diseases has increased by 13.2%. The obesity of the nation began. The introduction of the programs for quality nutrition for nation helped to reduce the level of non-communicable diseases by almost 50% by two decades (from 1975 to 1995). In addition, life expectancy increased and reached a level of 1963 year. The problem of quality food in the US is also recognized as a key factor in improving the quality of life of the population. The quality of food has a direct impact on the health of the nation, the demographic situation as a whole. It is treated as a basic element of national security. An analysis of statistical data characterizing the diet of the Americans, suggests the need to address problems of the organization of food and its quality control at the state level, because the quality of food to a large extent mediates the low life expectancy of Americans, which is less than 70 years, and in some regions significantly it is even lower. The use of the services of fast food restaurants, which is not always consistent with the principles of good nutrition has a negative impact on the health of people. Thus, analysis of the problems of organizing nutrition of the population, as an essential component of quality of life, is relevant both at the federal and regional levels. The dynamics of the development of rational norms of consumption of various foods in new economic conditions requires studying as well as how they meet the needs of a healthy person. The relevance of the designated problem is confirmed by its global nature and the attention of international organizations. Without a solution to the problem of quality nutrition, it is impossible to speak about the high quality of life.

Problem Gap in Knowledge about the Topic

Historical experience and the development of the science and knowledge of human health have persuasive data on the role of nutrition in human development, its compliance with the requirements of appropriate habitat, the formation of viability, social activity, and the decent quality of life. With the development of civilization, the lifestyle of people was changing, the level and quality of their lives changed and principles of nutrition as well. In 1783, the book by the British medical Paulhan "Healthy Food" was published. It revealed the impact of the regime and the composition of food on human health, human well-being, and mood. Further scientific work in the field of food quality become more complex, the problems covered in them are more versatile. The beginning of XX century is marked by the recognition of the importance of the study of the effect of good nutrition physiology and mental abilities. With the increasing importance of good nutrition as a factor for addressing socio-economic and demographic problems of the USA and its subjects, the purposeful study on the interdependence of nutrition and quality of life is actualized. Such studies in the USA were not carried out, and that led to the choice of research topic, its purpose, and objectives.

Hypothesis of the Study

The general hypothesis of the study is in the assertion of the existence of interdependence and interrelationship of nutrition and quality of life, respectively. Such interdependence confirms the need for a social partnership between state institutions, the business community, aimed at the development of rational nutrition industry. Scientific and Practical Novelty of the Research (proposal of how the study will help fill the gap and what new knowledge it might provide) The study will found that the problem of food has a direct relationship with both components of the welfare of man and society: the level and quality of life. Thus, if the standard of living, as a quantitative characteristic reflects the specific quantifiable availability of food at the appropriate or rational science-based volume consumption, the quality of life fixes not defined by quantitative efficiency of consumption and determines the possibility of reaching the rational norms of a balanced diet by every member of a society.

Methodology

In this study, the general sample is presented as young people aged 15 to 23 years. The sample size is 30 people. The sample survey using questionnaires was conducted. The study does not claim to greater representation of the data. The reasons for choosing such methodology and sample are the fact that this study is aimed at drawing the attention of society. The form, content, and results of the survey questionnaire that was used to carry out this work will be presented fully. The work task was to learn how changing the diet affects the behavior of the sample size, and further how these changes affect and contribute to changes in their psycho-physiological state. For the solution of the stated problem methods of questionnaires and observations of students aged 15 - 23 years old have been used. This study involved 15 male students (50%) and 15 students (50%). The both direct and indirect tools for measurement will be used. Quantitative knowledge of the studied variables will be obtained directly in the form of direct measurement and indirectly by calculation. The tools were chosen due to the fact that it becomes possible to accurately measure the quantities, expressing their relationship through the ratio of the numbers. Given that many values of are functionally linked, on the basis of this knowledge of the values there is some indirect way to establish others.

Description of Proposed Research

Research contributes to the development of knowledge about the role of nutrition in the structure of the components of quality of life, opportunities of reforming the system of public food and achieving optimal content. The study will identify negative effects of economic behavior of participants in today's market food industry oriented toward radicalization the  nutritional settlements, institutionalizing commercially effective fast food as an integral feature of the image of modern life. The dynamics of development effects like obesity, anorexia will be characterized. The relationship between dynamics and interdependence of nutrition and quality of life will be established. A decrease of norms and standards of consumption of basic foods that provided balanced and evidence-based dietary patterns that caused the destructive processes in the demographic, social, and professional structure of the society, and reducing the quality of its human resources will be revealed. Some of the findings that are expected to be obtained are as follows:
    1. changes in the diet can help patients with certain diseases to refuse medication;
    2. change in nutrition can be applied for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases;
    3. antioxidants contained in fruits and vegetables, improve mental ability in old age;
    4. a healthy diet can prevent the formation of kidney stones;
    5. there is convincing evidence of the relationship between children's nutrition and the most dangerous childhood diseases.
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