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Late Adulthood Theories of Aging Essay

Aging also defined as senescence can be observed over a period of time and can either be physical for example wrinkles, bent over back or even gray hairs, psychological this can be aging mentally because of disease, levels stress and feeling and also socially where one no longer does the same things that they did when earlier like not going out to clubs and dancing but instead just being at home this is mainly eminent as one’s chronological age increases. Age is measures chronologically such as by counting the years , there can also be universal aging which includes the common change by many people such as fashion, economic status.

There is problematic change which can happen to some and not others such a hereditary diseases. Proximal aging is that which involves effects from ones’ recent past this can be because of traumatic events or a change of events different from what one is used to (Dubois Et al. 2006). Distal ageing is one whose history can be dated to childhood ailments such as Down syndrome. Population aging is one which occurs when the population is mostly built up by a generation of older people in the society. Successful aging is where there is a low prospect of disease, proper functionality of the bodies and full engagement with all/most activities of life and proper mental health. Most people when they get old they are prone to many diseases which contribute to early death which also makes them less productive in their old age.

Cellular damage theories

Free-radical theory

This was discovered by Denham in 1950 and came up with the hypothesis that there was an inverse fraction with the living theory and metabolism of a body; this can be associated with cancer, arthritis and diabetes. There is proof that more of the radicals reduce lifespan. It assumes that one ages because of an accumulation of radicals in the body and which cause damage over time. This is in the atomic structure of an element and which are highly reactive and upon oxidation can cause great damage. Research has made it possible to know that reducing the oxidation can help in increasing life spans.

Wear and tear theory is linked to the damage that takes time meaning that it gets to a time where it cannot be used as it was before.

Causes of Damage:

This can be cause by several elements such as radiation which to harmful rays can cause one to experience poor skin or functioning of different organs. This theory can be likened to that of a machine where one is not able to use it and needs to repair damaged parts for it to work well.

Cross linking theory concerns the build up of cross linked composite; this works hand on hand with collagens and is liable to making various elements of the skin like giving it elastic nature. Cross liking occurs where the collagen pile up and join together and elasticity is lost.

Programmed theory

Cellular clock theory that is mainly concerns the endocrine system of the body and the cells divide and Hormonal stress theory.

The main stress hormones are nor epinephrine and cortical as well as GH and are produced in high amounts during times of high stress levels. These hormones affect the metabolism of the body the likes of digestion, obstructs growth, reproduction by increasing impotency and also bring about irregular periods and immunity thus exposing over to various ailments endocrine system and thus causes depression and high blood pressure (Stibich, 2009). These acts by getting energy form the muscles and fasten the heart, breathing rates.

The endocrine levels tend to relate to relate to issues dealing with the nervous system and the main functioning glands which are the endocrine glands. The hypothalamus helps in the regulation of gland in the body such as ovaries, thyroids, testes and adrenal glands as they produce hormones and regulates the amounts produced. Some of this can affect how one grows by proper regulation of different body processes and with the help of receptors; one is able to come up with protein production for growth (Mehlhorn, 2002). It becomes less efficient as one ages and at around the age of 20 one is done with growing process this hormone is blocked by the somatostatin, sometimes the reduction of important growth hormones can cause age related ailments and bone

Immunological theory

This involves the immunity system and how it works with different personalities, sexes and with age. When one is very young, their immune system is not as strong as one at around their mid teenage to mid twenties. When people age again their immune systems become very weak and this way they are not able to be as active and energetic. Disease can also cause aging such that if one is always sick, they tend not to look older than they are. Persons suffering from disease which affects the immune system can have an aging effect on the build up the white blood cells which aid in the making better of the protective system (Nathan, 2011). Leukemia in which too much blood cells are produced making them also attack the body can be such and element It can be said that one’s aging is immunity based, sickle cell anemia also in the absorption of oxygen deprives the body of the essential commodity and people can even die and thus they tend to look frail and week.