Nov 21, 2019 in Psychology

Study on Lie Detection

Introduction

A lie is basically a statement mainly oriented from a source that aims to mislead by being either false driven or inaccurate in nature. The process of communicating in lies is commonly referred to as lying, hence, the individual communicating the lie is referred to as a liar. Lies are usually employed by individuals to serve a variety of purposes and these purposes fall into various categories include interpersonal, instrumental and psychological purposes’ or functions.

In general, lies are viewed negatively throughout the world. Additionally, according to the context a person who communicates a lie is in they are liable or subject to legal, social, criminal, and religious sanctions. However, it’s important to note that in particular institutions it is considered appropriate to lie and to a greater extent it is encouraged and expected to be a replica in behavior and personality.

Types of lies

Bad Faith

According to ideologists, bad faith is lying to oneself. It is typically seen as the failure of an individual in recognizing and accepting ones abilities in acting in a particular manner, hence, determine one’s possibility to act appropriately or in an acceptable manner.

Barefaced lie

Also referred to as a bald faced lie, is basically a lie told to those who want to hear it. This face is characterized by those telling it, it is a lie told with a confident face, and it is also usually accompanied with body language and gestures that portray confidence and symbolize the speaking of the truth.

Big lie

This is lie that attempts to trick victims and make them believe that something big is happening and greatly contradicts with what is happening in reality. It is important to note that when the lie is sufficient enough the victims may take it as truth despite being facts to prove that the other opinion is indeed the truth.

Bluffing

A bluff is a type of lie in which one claims to possess the powers or capabilities they do not actually possess. It is a type of deception and tact that is utilized by a variety of individuals in order to have an advantage over particular things in order to have their way with them.

Butler lie

This term was coined by researchers of the University of Cornell of social media lab, and in their description, a Butler lie is a small innate lie that is mainly sent through electronic means. For example, sending lies through mobile phone SMS and emails.

Contextual lies

This is a type of lie in which part of the information required to make a point or perception complete is kept from being reviled, hence, giving a false impression.

Cover up lies

This cover up lies are mainly used to defend ones owns mistakes. They are majorly used to ensure that the truth about ones actions does not spill out.

Defamation

Defamation refers to the communication of false information that is in most cases intended to harm the reputation of individuals as well as organizations.

Deflection

Deflection is a special kind of lie in which one avoids talking about a lie previously stated or not giving ones opinion about the lie. Deflectors are passive aggressive individuals and when confronted about the truth they choose not to respond and to a greater extent ignore the issue.

Dismal

This is a form of lie that mainly involves the dismissing of feelings, raw facts of situations, and perceptions and it may cause damage and harm to an individual just like any other lie would.

It is important to note that acting and believing on false information has server consequences and it is because of this a lot of scientists have attempted to develop reliable and efficient methods of detecting and distinguishing lies from the truth i.e. lie detection.

Lie Detection

Lie detection also commonly referred to as deception, and it employs the use of questioning techniques combined with efficient and effective technology that record and monitor an individual’s psychological functions to ascertain falsehood and truthfulness in an individual. It is commonly used in law enforcement agencies and has been commended in a variety of cases as the best way of detecting lies in individuals.

There are quite a number of technologies developed for the intention of measuring the level of truthfulness in an individual. The common and most widely used is the polygraph that is mainly used in the United States of America, where its users state that the device can discriminate lying from the telling of the truth and good rates though above perfection. Additionally, the results given by the polygraph may apply only to particular events, for example, in a screening event, the polygraph is said to work less effectively.

Machine accuracy and assessment

Cumulative research and evidences provided indicate that machines yes can detect deception and lies better than chance, however, they are followed with a significant number of errors. Additionally, there have been strategies developed with aim of beating polygraphs commonly referred to as countermeasures that a very great extent make polygraphs ineffective, hence, corrupting the readings.

However despite this liabilities, the results of polygraphs are used in court in a lot of countries, for example, Japan and the United States of America (U.S.A), however, when it comes to the United States of America (U.S.A), these results are rarely admitted as evidence in the court of law. Recent research shows that these machines detect deception at a far much accurate level and with little errors as possible. According to documents published by the International Journal of Electronics as well as computer engineering shows that the voice stress analysis that is one of the lie detecting technologies used can detect emotional strain better than the polygraph.

History

The study of human physiological methods in the detection of emotional disturbances was begun in the year 1900. Benussi was one of the first individuals to embrace this work and took it upon himself to study deception and his study was based entirely on physiological changes. He detected changes in expiration and inspiration of a human being.

Burrt is another individual that embraced this study. However, his took a different tall. He sort to look at the differences in an individual’s blood pressure. Marston is yet another individual that embraced the study in the difference in an individual’s blood pressure and noted that upon the detection of guilt, the blood pressure in an individual increased with which its detection are reported to have an accuracy of 90%-100%.

He later improved on his studies on blood pressure and in the year 1913, he determined the effectiveness of looking at systolic blood pressure by oscillatory methods in which noted that there is a definite change in blood pressure in an individual during the detection of a lie or deception. However, it was criticized by other scholars arguing that emotional changes are too brief and they could get lost very fast, hence, evade detection. However, despite all the above mentioned information about using machines in lie detection, it is important to note that lie detection can be achieved not only by use of machines but by other means such as language comprehension and speech based lie detection.

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