Injuries Essay Sample
T. had a frontal lobe injury due to an electrical shock which stopped his heart and caused the brain injury. While this injury was not fatal, it was very harmful and has caused many problems for him since the accident. Since the accident, there have been multiple problems I have witnessed on a daily basis. There have been issues dealing with attention, predominantly short term attention span. There also have been issues with visual processing, information processing, memory, and executive functions as well. The following lists information as to why this may be caused from the accident and why T. might not have control over his behavior. It has been found that one of the specific behavior issues following damage to the frontal lobe is attention disorder, where patients were showing distraction and poor attention span. They seem to present with decreased memory, which has also been described as forgetting to remember.
Patients who have this frontal lobe injury tend to be concrete with their thinking and they tend to show perseveration of their responses to various questions (Cooper). However, the perseveration and its inability to be able to switch from one form of thinking to another will often lead to issues in calculations such as mathematical. Other clinical signs associated with frontal lobe damage often include sensory inattention in the field of vision causing visual searching and various changes of cognitive function. This behavior is found often times by offering patients who have been the victims of such electrocutions different normal daily objects for everyday use and observing that, while the patients use them without instructions, they will often use them incorrectly (Cooper). They will also imitate the gestures of the person giving them rehabilitation, no matter how inane it might be. The dementias found amongst the patients who have survived electrocution have become increasingly important in psychiatric practice and progress has been made to classify them and discover their exact basis. Much of this dementia directly involves the memory loss due to frontal lobe changes caused specifically from the electrocution incident itself.
There are, however, other types of dementia which are more selective and affect the frontal lobe function. These have been researched are not as widely known at this time. Individuals have also relied on certain neural transmitters for basic functions of daily life, such as memory, learning, task organizational skills, sleeping, concentration, and many other things as well. Because the lightning injury is normally a frontal lobe injury, this is where the personality is found (Cooper). Many individuals have a problem with this because it seems too many that they were fine and then somehow their brain “just quit”.
A good way of thinking when speaking of a person being struck by electrocution is that of a computer which has had a shock of lightening pass through it. The outside appears unharmed as do the internal parts if not inspected too closely. However on looking closer, things such as the processors and such no longer work normally when the machine is started up. This is the way people often feel or describe the feeling after being electrocuted. The different neurons used for things never “work” the same again and there must be a new way to learn how to deal and adapt to this. Due to the fact, also, that most things of this nature are happening in the frontal lobe, the person will be emotional most often and explaining this to them is going to be hard and sometimes will be impossible (Cooper).
In 1998 John got a closed head injury (a blow to the head that does not penetrate the skull) after being involved in a car accident. He was diagnosed with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). John suffered loss of balance. He could not walk or stand straight and had problems sitting. He also suffered loss of memory. He suffered a disease called aphasia. John had difficulty finding words to say and understanding the speech of others.
There are many other cognitive problems that a person may be caused by TBI or any brain disorder after a car accident. One such problem is Psychological trauma. Psychological trauma has great effects on physical aspects of patients’ brains, to the point that it can have detrimental effects akin to actual physical brain damage. Another problem is intrusive thoughts. Intrusive thoughts are defined as unwelcome, involuntary thoughts, images or unpleasant ideas that may become obsessions, are upsetting or distressing, and can be difficult to be free of and manage. In patients who have suffered from traumatic events, especially those with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, depression or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, the thoughts aren’t as easy to ignore and can become troubling and severe. These thoughts are not typically acted on; the obsession of the thoughts usually comes from intense guilt, shame or anxiety relating to the fact that the patient is having the thoughts to begin with so they are unlikely to actually act on things they feel so badly about. In trauma patients, the intrusive thoughts are typically memories from traumatic experiences that come at unexpected and unwanted times. The primary difference from other intrusive thoughts sufferers is that the memories are real rather than imagined (Wikipedia).
A car accident may cause brain damage. Damage to different areas of the brain can have varied effects on memory. The temporal lobes, on the sides of the brain, contain the hippocampus and amygdale, and therefore have a lot to do with memory transition and formation. Patients who have had injury to this area have experienced problems creating new long-term memories. A patient whose fornix was damaged bilaterally suffered severe anterograde amnesia but no effect on any other forms of memory or cognition (Wikipedia). A patient may also suffer from emotion disorder. Here the patient may show lack of self esteem, aggression, anxiety, depression, anger, mood swings, moodiness, detachment or postpartum depression. Traumatic brain injury may compromise the person's ability to respond to the emotional needs of others. It also puts them out of touch with their own emotions, and causes a condition known as flattened affect. Head injury can cause a person to become more sensitive to light and sound. The sound of children playing might over stimulate him and cause him to feel irritable.
In addition the patient may show behavioral changes. These include difficulty controlling urges (dis-inhibition), impulsiveness, inappropriate laughter and irritability. He/she may also suffer from blurry or double vision (diplopia), difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), dizziness, headache, in coordination of movements and lightheadedness (Anonymous). Other impairments include what's called executive functioning, that has to do with executing or doing things. Other troublesome impairments include diminished initiation. Initiation has to do with starting things (Miller).
Other problems that can be attributed to TBI include attention disorder, fatigue, and heightened arousal and diminished IQ.